Today is the anniversary of the Battle of the Zab, which took place in 750 and was the climactic battle in the Abbasid Revolution that ousted the Umayyads from the caliphate. Obviously you can find out more about the revolution elsewhere on this blog, but the battle itself deserves a little mention.
The Umayyad army was primarily made up of Syrian Arabs, who had amply demonstrated their toughness and battlefield capabilities by this point in campaigns against the Byzantines and in putting down several previous rebellions. They were under the direct command of Caliph Marwan II himself, and Marwan, although he may not personally have been all sunshine and rainbows, had impressive credentials as a military leader. He’d been governor of the northernmost provinces of the empire, which meant direct responsibility for conducting raids against neighboring Christian kingdoms like the Byzantine Empire and Georgia, and he’d taken the caliphate by force, not inheritance, and had held it through substantial turmoil.
The Abbasids, however, were no slouches either. Their troops came from communities in Khurasan (an area that stretches from eastern Iran into Afghanistan in modern terms) that were true frontier areas, so when they weren’t campaigning against their Central Asian neighbors to expand their territory, they were defending against those same Central Asian neighbors trying to win that territory back. They were hardened, crack fighters. They’d been built into an army by Abu Muslim, who had recruited them under his banner on behalf of…somebody; he didn’t reveal exactly who was behind the movement (Abu al-Abbas, aka the future Caliph al-Saffah) until 749, well after the rebellion was underway and after his soldiers were already committed to the war. This army had already been successful against several smaller Umayyad forces on the way from Khurasan to Iraq, so they were energized and confident in their chances. At Zab they were under the formal command of al-Saffah’s uncle, Abdullah b. Ali.
The two armies met at the Greater Zab River in northern Iraq. The rebels adopted a favorite tactic of the Umayyads, the spear wall, and let the Umayyad cavalry charge right into it and get slaughtered. If you need a mental picture, you can probably think the “Battle of Stirling” from Braveheart, even though that film gets the actual Battle of Stirling Bridge wrong (along with lots of other stuff). The rest of Marwan’s army ran, many of them drowning in the river, and Marwan himself managed to get all the way to Abusir, not far from modern Cairo, before the Abbasids caught up to him and killed him.
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