Today (sort of) in Middle Eastern/European history: the Ottomans get started (1299, or 1302)

If you’ve read The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire–and, you know, who hasn’t–then you may know that Edward Gibbon marks July 27, 1299, as the date of the founding of the Ottoman Empire. It was on this date, according to Gibbon, that Osman I (d. 1326), the Ottomans’ founder and namesake, led his fighters (it would be exaggerating to call it an “army” at this point) on an invasion (“raid” might be the better term) of Nicomedia, which was under Byzantine control at the time (and would remain so until 1337). This may have been the first Ottoman raid into Byzantine territory.

“Osman I,” a portrait by British engraver John Young (d. 1825), via Wikimedia

The date is worth marking as much as a curiosity as anything else, because while Gibbon’s work is a landmark of Enlightenment scholarship, it’s really not much of a history, even about the Romans, let alone about a side issue like the Ottomans. Also, the creation of the Ottoman Empire was a process more than an event, one whose origins reach back before Osman to his father, Ertuğrul (d. 1281). And the actual formation of the Ottoman Empire, as something we could realistically call an “empire” without devaluing the term, doesn’t really coalesce for a few more decades at least, under either Osman’s son Orhan (d. 1362) or his grandson Murad I (d. 1389). Some people might even argue that it’s not an “empire” until Mehmed the Conqueror captures Constantinople in 1453, though maybe that’s going too far in the other direction.

Still, the Ottomans had to start sometime, I guess, and why not 1299? It’s around that time that Osman appears to have stopped pretending to be a vassal to the Seljuk Sultanate based in Konya, though the fact that he kept the title Bey (more or less equivalent to “lord”) during his life, instead of assuming the title of sultan, suggests that he wasn’t really prepared to make any extravagant political claims. Anyway, there’s a decent enough case to argue that the founding of the Ottoman house, if not quite the empire, happened sometime around 1299, and barring any better evidence–and we really don’t have very much hard evidence for what was happening in northwestern Anatolia at the end of the 13th century–we might as well go along with Gibbon.

Still, nowadays the more common academic answer to the question of when the Ottomans got started is the year 1302 (probably–you always have to allow for some error in dating), when the Ottomans stopped raiding Byzantine territory and started conquering it. Interestingly enough, July 27 also factors in here, as it was on July 27, 1302, that Osman’s Ottomans defeated a Byzantine army in the Battle of Bapheus, in the Byzantine province of Bithynia (the far northwest part of Anatolia). This was the Ottomans’ first recorded victory in a pitched battle against a real army, and it opened the door to their slow conquest of the major cities of Bithynia, including Bursa in 1326 (Gibbon calls this the start of the “true era of the Ottoman Empire”), Nicaea in 1331, and the aforementioned Nicomedia in 1337.

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Author: DWD

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