The two most famous military orders to come out of the Crusades were the Knights Templar, which was named for its first headquarters on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, and the Knights Hospitaller, which ran a hospital in Crusader Jerusalem before it diversified into the fighting business. The Templars are the more famous of the two, since they’ve seeped into popular literature and film (The Da Vinci Code, for example), but whereas the Templars were hunted down and disbanded in the early 1300s, the Hospitallers have survived to the present day, though now they’re called the “Sovereign Military Order of Malta.” The Great Siege of Malta is a big part of the reason why they have that name today.
After the last of the Crusader states in the Levant, Acre, was captured by the Mamluks in 1291, the Hospitallers, also known as the Order of the Knights of St. John, went first to Cyprus and then to the Island of Rhodes.
The Hospitallers conquered Rhodes in 1309 and ruled it as their own fiefdom, under the nominal suzerainty of the Byzantine Emperor, until 1522, when a massive Ottoman army drove them off the island after a six month siege. The surviving members of the order eventually wound up in Sicily, which was controlled by Charles I of Spain. Charles made the Knights his vassals and gave them the archipelago of Malta.
(“Malta” refers both to the archipelago nation and to the largest island in the archipelago. All of the action in the 1565 siege takes place on the island of Malta, so usually when I write “Malta” here I’ll be referring to the island. I’ll try to note when I’m talking about the entire archipelago, but I expect I’ll mess up at least once or twice.)
As you can see, Malta (the archipelago and the island) is in a pretty strategic location, from which a powerful navy could control the chokepoint between the eastern and western halves of the Mediterranean and could disrupt the Ottoman-aligned Barbary Corsairs sailing from North Africa to make life miserable for Christian commerce. So it was absolutely an Ottoman target. The Hospitallers knew this, and it appears that they only accepted Charles’s offer of the island because they really had nowhere else to go. They set to work garrisoning the island both to use as a naval base of operations and in preparation for the Ottoman invasion they were pretty sure would be coming at some point.
That invasion came in 1551, yet it was only a small (maybe 10,000 men) Ottoman army that was nowhere near up to the task of besieging Malta’s Saint Angelo Fort (though when that siege failed they did successfully loot the citadel on the island of Gozo, the second-largest of the Maltese islands). But the Hospitallers and their Grand Master, Juan de Homedes, knew that a stronger Ottoman invasion was likely, and they set to work constructing two more forts on the island, Fort Saint Michael and Fort Saint Elmo. In 1560, a joint Spanish-Genoese-Venetian-Papal-Maltese fleet was resoundingly defeated by the Ottomans at Djerba, off the southern coastline of modern-day Tunisia, and with Ottoman naval supremacy assured, the time seemed right for another try at taking Malta.
So, on May 18, 1565, an Ottoman force of somewhere between 20,000 and 50,000 men came ashore on Malta and set to work besieging the Hospitallers, who numbered around 9000 and were led by Jean Parisot de Valette (d. 1568). De Valette had been elected Grand Master in 1557 and was about 70 years old in 1565, but still reportedly engaged in active fighting during the siege. The Ottoman force was led by, ah, well, it’s complicated. Sultan Sulayman had for some reason decided to divide command of the expedition, putting Lala Mustafa Pasha in command of the army and Piyale Pasha (the victor at Djerba) in command of the navy, but subordinating both to the Greco-Ottoman privateer/admiral Dragut, who was based out of Tunisia and was one of the great corsair captains (i.e., pirates, let’s be honest) of the age.
Back when the History Channel used to show programs that had something to do with history, they did a pretty decent program on the Great Siege of Malta from a military history perspective, which as luck would have it is available on YouTube:
If you don’t want to watch a 45 minute video mostly about about early gunpowder weaponry, well, different strokes and all. The siege lasted almost four months, and seeing as how it’s already almost midnight and so this post is in significant danger of going live on the wrong freaking day, I’ll spare you the details. The Ottomans captured Fort Saint Elmo on June 23, but in the process 6000 Ottoman soldiers were killed, including Dragut. This deprived the expedition of its overall leader and left Piayle Pasha and Lala Mustafa Pasha in co-command, which probably wasn’t good for the cohesiveness of the operation. The Hospitallers were engaged in a holding action, waiting for reinforcements to arrive from Sicily, and so they gave ground grudgingly and tenaciously held on to Saint Elmo well after it became clear that the fort would inevitably fall.
The Ottomans besieged the two remaining fortresses, Saint Michael and Saint Angelo, but made very little progress throughout July and into August. By that point the besieging army was beginning to panic. They’d sustained heavy losses, both in combat and due to disease (the real scourge of pre-modern armies), against a numerically inferior force, and they had almost nothing to show for it. At some point the defense of Saint Michael appeared hopeless and the Hospitaller Council of Elders voted to evacuate and try to hold on to Saint Angelo until relief arrived, but De Vallette, guessing that the Ottomans were faltering, countermanded the council’s decision and ordered Saint Michael to hold out as long as it could.
With winter approaching, the Ottomans looked for a place to settle in on the island but found nothing, and so they began preparing to board their ships and get the hell out of there. It was at this point that the long-promised relief from Sicily finally arrived, on September 7. They arrived to find the Ottomans already retreating, but chased the invaders back to their ships, which disembarked for Istanbul on September 11.
Historians disagree about the impact of the Ottoman failure at Malta. The narrative for a long time was that the Maltese victory had saved Christendom from an Ottoman onslaught into the western Mediterranean. But based on how poorly the Ottomans performed during the siege, it seems more likely that they were about a the limits of their reach, and it’s unclear whether they would have even been able to hold on to Malta if they’d managed to take it. On the other hand, Malta was a heroic Christian victory but not a decisive one; it’s not as though Ottoman military power suffered afterward. Indeed, the Ottomans remained dominant on land and at least competitive at sea until the late 1600s. But the Hospitallers’ brave defense of Malta against great odds became a rallying point for Christendom, and in that sense its impact may not be easily measured.