Today in North African history: the Green March begins (1975)

It’s hard to believe that the Spanish Empire only officially ceased to exist in 1975. I mean, when you think of the Spanish Empire, or at least when I think of it, I think of vast swathes of the Americas that were Spanish colonial domains until the successful independence movements of the early 19th century, with a couple of territories (Cuba, the Philippines) remaining under Spanish control until the Spanish-American War. But Spain held a few territories in Africa well into the 20th century, and none later than the area known today as Western Sahara, Spain’s last colony.

Western Sahara (Wikimedia Commons | Kmusser)

Even while it was part of the Spanish Empire, Western Sahara was claimed by both Morocco to the north and Mauritania to the east and south. Historically, Morocco probably has the better claim, in that there have been several political entities over the past few centuries that have been based in parts of modern Morocco that have ruled, at least nominally, parts of Western Sahara. Also, Morocco’s ruling Alaouite Dynasty can claim some traditional allegiances among the Berber tribes in the area. But, you know, boundaries in the Sahara are not well-defined (all those straight lines are a bad sign), either geographically or in human terms (the region’s nomadic Berber tribes never really bothered establishing strict borders), so who can really say?

Well, I suppose you could try asking the people who actually live there. It’s a novel idea, I realize, but bear with me. The Sahrawi people, as they’re known, were already starting to resist continued Spanish rule, and in 1973 a militant group called the POLISARIO Front (short for Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y o de Oro–Saguía el Hamra and Río de Oro were the two component territories of Western Sahara under Spanish rule) was formed to force Spain out. There were very few active POLISARIO fighters at any given time, but they had public support and they were able to control big chunks of mostly desert territory that Spain didn’t have a lot of interest in holding anyway. After a couple of years of this, Spain seems to have decided that hanging on to Western Sahara just wasn’t worth it, and they began to negotiate with POLISARIO about a withdrawal and handover of power.

Enter Morocco, which wanted Spain out of Western Sahara, but also wanted Western Sahara for itself. Morocco first took its case to the International Court of Justice in October 1975, but the ICJ gave them a lukewarm ruling that allowed as to how Morocco had “some ties” to Western Sahara, but so did Mauritania and anyway those ties weren’t strong enough to justify annexing the region to Morocco. Moroccan King Hassan II decided that this was a bunch of bullshit, and resolved to take matters into his own hands.

Hassan organized a “spontaneous” march involving some 350,000 Moroccans, accompanied of course by 20,000 Moroccan soldiers because Safety First, and sent them traipsing into Western Sahara carrying Moroccan flags and Qurans. The name “Green March” comes from the fact that green is the traditional color of Islam, as it’s said that it was Muhammad’s favorite color. Spanish soldiers in Western Sahara, who outnumbered and outgunned the Moroccans, were nonetheless strictly forbidden from interrupting the march, and in fact started clearing minefields so that the marchers didn’t have to worry about getting blown up. Which was nice, I think.

Spain’s refusal to put up any fight can be traced to the fact that its long-time ruler, Francisco Franco, was dying, and his regent/successor, the future King Juan Carlos I, just plain didn’t want to have to deal with a colonial war in Africa in the year 19-freaking-75. Spain immediately called for negotiations on what would become the Madrid Accords, signed on November 14, in which Mauritania mostly gave up any claim it had on Western Sahara, and Spain agreed to cede the territory to Morocco in exchange for a substantial share of Western Sahara’s two natural resources: its long and very fishing-friendly coastline and its massive phosphate deposits (it may also have offshore oil and gas deposits, but nobody knew that at the time and even now it’s not clear that they can be profitably exploited).

The big problem with the Madrid Accords was that nobody bothered to invite POLISARIO to the talks, and they, along with a sizable chunk of the Sahrawi people, were clearly not keen on going from Spanish to Moroccan rule. Their resistance to Moroccan sovereignty, backed all of a sudden by Algeria (which was also pissed that it hadn’t been invited to the talks and figured that an independent Western Sahara was preferable to one that belonged to Morocco), quickly turned into the Western Sahara War, a conflict that has technically been raging ever since, although it’s been in a ceasefire since 1991. That ceasefire hinges on the promise of a United Nations-organized referendum on Western Sahara’s ultimate fate, yet here we are 24 years later and, well, I’m sure it will happen any day now (or not, since the current Moroccan King, Mohammed VI, refuses to allow one). Morocco essentially pulled out of whatever remained of the peace process about a decade ago, and POLISARIO keeps threatening to restart the fighting unless some progress is made. This is a war that, not unlike the Korean War, never ended and could technically resume at any time.

Map of the Western Sahara wall (via

Meanwhile, and despite some rumblings about restarting the peace process at the UN, Western Sahara exists in a kind of disputed limbo. It’s no longer a Spanish colony, but as a Moroccan possession it’s still considered “Africa’s last colony.” It’s divided by the “Moroccan Wall,” an almost 3000 km-long sand berm, built in 1982 and steadily expanded through 1987, running from southwestern Morocco down the eastern side of Western Sahara and then out to the Mediterranean coast. It separates POLISARIO-controlled areas from the rest of the region.

The Moroccan Wall (via

The UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) is theoretically still maintaining the peace process and working toward a referendum, but there’s not much it can do without Moroccan cooperation. The human rights situation is grim–both sides are accused of conscripting children, the Moroccan government routinely uses disproportionate force to deal with any protesters, POLISARIO runs “refugee camps” where Sahrawi (who aren’t always free to come and go) are put to forced labor and military service, and, perhaps worst of all, there are hundreds of Sahrawi who have been “disappeared” over the past couple of decades. Many Sahrawi might be willing to settle for some kind of autonomous status within Morocco, particularly if it means an end to POLISARIO and to whatever the Algerians are doing, but for now they remain encased in the colonial version of amber.

Author: DWD

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